Steel

 

 

The material

Stainless steel or stainless steel is the name given to the currently high chromium content steels, for their property of not rusting when exposed to air and water: the chromium, oxidized in contact with oxygen, is transformed into oxide chromium (CrO2) that adheres to the workpiece, preventing further oxidation (this phenomenon is known as passivation). I am an extremely important class of steels, used for many different purposes: from their discovery in 1913, thanks mainly to the subsequent progress of the metallurgy between the 40s and 60s, have extended their development and their applications; still they are refined and adapted to the demands of various industries, such as oil / petrochemical, mining, energy, nuclear and food.

Applications

For less demanding applications, you can use carbon steels only, otherwise you need to add alloying elements to increase the hardness.
Carbon: 0.6% concentration could already offer maximum hardness, however, some of the carbon combines with other elements present and therefore may be necessary to increase the content.
Manganese: has deoxidizing action, improves the hardenability and facilitates the formation of carbides.
Silicon: has deoxidizing action, increases to ‘oxidation resistance.
Chromium: increases the hardenability, stabilizes the carbides.
Vanadium:prevents the grain growth, beneficial to have high-temperature hardness.
Tungsten and molybdenum: voted for the resistance to ‘wear at high temperatures.